Title: Byzantské vnímanie Jeruzalema v období neskorej antiky
Authors: Schneider, Filip
Citation: Pecha, Lukáš ed. Orientalia antiqua nova XX, Plzeň, 17. září 2020. 1. vyd. Plzeň: Západočeská univerzita v Plzni, 2020, s. 224-245. ISBN 978-80-261-0967-9.
Issue Date: 2020
Publisher: Západočeská univerzita v Plzni
Document type: conferenceObject
konferenční příspěvek
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11025/42356
ISBN: 978-80-261-0967-9
Keywords: Jeruzalem;pozdní antika;Byzanc
Keywords in different language: Jerusalem;late antiquity;Byzantium
Abstract in different language: Aelia Capitolina was an insignificant city in Roman perception; however, Christians saw it as the site of memory where Christ died, was buried, and came back from the dead. Through the various media such as the scriptures, Jerusalem had a symbolic significance for them. After the Council in Nicea the Emperor Constantine built the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. By this act he made Jerusalem a Christian city and the site of memory of Christian past for all the people that will visit it. Jerusalem therefore became a part of a cultural memory as the city of Christ and Christian past that no one would doubt about. On behalf of rising the significance of the city and making it a symbol of Christian past, Aelia Capitolina was re-named Jerusalem. This was supposed to be the reminder of the connection to je past and spirituality of Christians But even though Constantine made Jerusalem the lieux de mémoire of Christians, the city never gained such an importance as the imperial cities of Rome, Constantinople, or Alexandria. The political ideas of the Roman Empire thus affected the Christian Church and the political importance of Roman cities also became importance ecclesiastical. The political significance of Jerusalem raised in the fifth century by its nomination as the fifth patriarchal city; however, it never gained true power as the other cities of the pentarchy. In fact, it can be considered as a prolonged hand of the orthodox patriarch of Constantinople. Constantinople as the imperial city was getting more and more power and hand in hand with it raised power ecclesiastical. The Roman-Christian ideology of a God-chosen Emperor and the Empire protected by the God significantly affected the City on Bosporus, for it was the residential city of the Emperors. This image of Christian Emperor was extruded especially by the Emperor Justinian in the sixth century. Along with that, Justinian stood behind the construction of the church of Hagia Sofia in Constantinople, making it the most important church for Christians in Byzantine Empire. All in all, it can be said that because of Justinian, Constantinople became the site of memory for Christians in Byzantium instead of Jerusalem. Despite this fact, Jerusalem still had a special place in Christian minds, as will be seen in the 7th century. The Persian conquest of Jerusalem in 614 caused a great shock in the Byzantine Empire. The Holy City of Christians was in enemy´s hands and the True Cross was taken to Persia. Lamentations about the fate of the city can be found throughout the historical sources. During the reconquest Emperor Heraclius appealed on the religious feeling of the Byzantines and the war gained a form of a Holy War. Jerusalem lost its significance for Byzantine Christians in favour of Constantinople. The city of Bosporus became the centre of Christians throughout the Empire. People began to concern about Jerusalem after its conquest. However, as was seen, the deliberation of the city was used in imperial propaganda. Jerusalem was important not only because it was the city where Christ died and was resurrected, but also it was the island of orthodoxy in the sea of heretical teachings. Despite the symbolic significance of the city, it wasn´t the primary goal of the war. Heraclius would launch the campaign anyway, for it was the question of surviving of the Empire itself. The city of Jerusalem and Christian feeling was used as a propaganda to raise the moral of the Byzantines, but also in attempt to get allies in the war. In sum, it was the affection of Romanitas on Christianity that shaped the perception of the city. The case of Jerusalem confirmed the thesis that Christianity absorbed Romanitas, making the city no more significant than other bigger cities in the Empire.
Rights: © Západočeská univerzita v Plzni, autoři
Appears in Collections:Orientalia antiqua nova XX (2020)
Orientalia antiqua nova XX (2020)

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