Title: Meziválečné ústavy pobaltských republik ve vzájemném srovnání
Other Titles: Interwar Constitutions of the Baltic Republics in the Cross-comparison
Authors: Černohorský, Petr
Advisor: Balík, Stanislav
Referee: Balík, Stanislav
Issue Date: 2012
Publisher: Západočeská univerzita v Plzni
Document type: diplomová práce
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11025/3240
Keywords: Lotyšsko;Litva;Estonsko;ústava;historie;meziválečné období;ústavní vývoj - Rusko
Keywords in different language: Latvia;Lithuania;Estonia;constitution;history;interwar period - constitutional development;Russia
Abstract: Práce se zabývá jednak historickým vývojem Pobaltí od nejstarších dob, jednak ústavním vývojem pobaltských států od jejich vzniku v roce 1918 fo jejich anexe Sovětským svazem v roce 1940. Popisuje jednotlivé ústavy Litvy , Lotyšska a Estonska a srovnává je v jednak v jejich časovém vývoji a jednak mezi jednotlivými státy
Abstract in different language: This Thesis called Interwar Constitutions of the Baltic Republics in the Cross-comparison? represents legal-historical work. It tries to clarify and explain constitutional development of these countries during the period of their independence between the two world wars of the 20th century against the background of historical development. The first part describes historical development of the nations living on the territory of present Latvia, Estonia and Lithuania. In this part attention is paid to the creation of the state units in present-day Eastern Baltics, their history, particularly in the context of significant historical events in Europe. Development of the state of Lithuania (including its union with Poland), history of Livland in relation to the Latvian and Estonian people is observed here in detail. Next part is devoted to the history of the Baltics in relation to awareness of national identity and creation of national culture. In the beginning of the twentieth century the territory of the Eastern Baltics belonged to the Russian Empire. During the revolution in 1905 first attempts to gain independence occurred, however the Baltic people got only a certain form of autonomy (especially in language) within the frame of the Russian Empire. The First World War in its final phase brought occupation of the Baltics region by the German army. After the revolutions in Russia in February and October 1917 and after the conclusion of the Brest-Lithuanian Peace Treaty in the spring 1918 the Baltics got under the occupation of imperial Germany. After its capitulation in November 1918 the space that allowed creation of new states in the Baltics: Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia, opened. In the next part of the Thesis the attention is paid to the wars for independence, which the Baltic states waged against soviet Russia. The attention is also paid to the Poland-soviet war, which was of a great importance, particularly for Lithuania. Constitutional development of separate Baltic republics in relation to historical development is the topic of the next part of the Thesis. Against the background of the historical development the changes of constitutions of the separate states are described. The attention is paid to the reasons of origination of the authoritarian regimes in Lithuania (1927), Latvia and Estonia (1934). Comparison of the constitutions of the separate states in their development phases presents clearly how democratic regimes without parliamentary tradition in the past under pressure due to the economic crisis and events in Europe (origination of authoritarian regimes in Germany, Italy and in fact in the Soviet Union, too) were forced to take recourse to the ?strong hand? government. Breakdown of the system of collective security of the League of Nations, the pact Ribbentrop Molotov finally resulted in (despite the proclamation of neutrality of the Baltic states) extinction of state sovereignty of the Baltic republics and their annexation by the Soviet Union in 1940. After the fall of the Soviet Union in the beginning of the nineties of 20th century the independence of Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia was restored and by their admission to the European Union and NATO their pro-European democratic orientation is declared.
Rights: Plný text práce je přístupný bez omezení.
Appears in Collections:Diplomové práce / Theses (KPD)

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